The Other Side: A Breton Legend
From Victorian Literature
Stenbock, Eric. “The Other Side: A Breton Legend.” The Spirit Lamp: An Oxford Magazine without News, An Aesthetic, Literary and Critical Magazine 4.2 (1893): 52-68. Print.
W.B. Yeats called Count Stanislaus Eric Stenbock a “scholar, connoisseur, drunkard, poet, pervert, most charming of men,” which is actually an accurate description of Stenbock’s life. Stenbock was born on March 12, 1860 at Thirlestain Hall, Cheltenham to Lucy Sophia, a cotton heiress, and Count Erich Stenbock, count of Borges and baron of Torpa whose aristocratic family extended from Estonia to Sweden and Russia. Stenbock made contributions to literature that were recognized by his contemporaries, but eventually those contributions faded into obscurity. Stenbock attended Balliol College, Oxford in 1879, but after four terms he left without finishing a degree. His father died when he was only one, and his grandfather died in 1885, leaving him the family estate and the title of Count. Stenbock is known for his interesting shifts in religious allegiance: Born Lutheran and later converting to Catholicism, eventually Stenbock syncretically “evolved a religion of his own, compounded of Buddhism, Catholicism and idolatry.” His fascination with religion can be seen in a work like “The Other Side” in which religion is one of the dominant forces in the lives of the characters and in the progression of the narrative. Stenbock died on April 26, 1895 from cirrhosis of the liver. He died in his mother’s home in Withdeane Hall, near Brighton, and was buried on May 1st in Brighton Catholic cemetery.
Stenbock’s work “The Other Side: A Breton Legend” may at first seem out of place in The Spirit Lamp, a journal connected with the Aesthetic and Decadent movements. The story deals with werewolf lore, but undercurrents in the narrative of resistance to religious authority, infatuation with beauty and sexuality connect it to the Decadent movement and reveal why the editor, Lord Alfred Douglas, may have included the piece. One of the undercurrents within The Spirit Lamp was a subtle emphasis on any sexuality or morality opposed to the dominant Victorian ideology, such as homosexuality or promiscuity. On the surface, “The Other Side” is about a boy’s encounter with a group of werewolves, but the story also revolves around the boy’s subtle exploration of sexuality and even devious sexuality in his desire for his human friend, Carmielle (devious because they are young and unmarried), and his more intimate sexual encounters with the werewolf girl Lilith. The name Lilith is a reference to the rabbinic tradition in which Lilith was the first wife of Adam (before Eve), who was sometimes described as an indomitable woman who left Adam because of incompatibility, and sometimes she has even been described as a type of demonic presence. In any case, her name is connected with sexual deviance which resists patriarchal mores, and because Lilith can be seen as an opposition to conservative Victorian morality she was consequently idealized by others in the Victorian period like Robert Browning and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Writing in the Victorian era, Stenbock “established not only an enduring fin de siècle legend of self-destruction but also numerous friendships with writers and artists, including Aubrey Beardsley [. . . and] Max Beerbohm” Not only did his association with individuals and his lifestyle connect him with the late Victorian movements of Aestheticism and Decadence, but also his writing which focused on dark topics and critiques of issues like the role and purpose of religion, the nature of sexuality, and what it meant to be queer. “The Other Side” is an interesting piece of werewolf lore, but more interesting is the way it connects to other Victorian works like The Picture of Dorian Gray and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and Dracula because each work contains supernatural elements and examines notions of sexuality, morality, and identity formation in the context of conservative Victorian ideology.
The Other Side: A Breton Legend
A la joyouse Messe noire.
“Not that I like it, but one does feel so much better after it — oh, thank you, Mère Yvonne, yes just a little drop more.” So the old crones fell to drinking their hot brandy and water (although of course they only took it medicinally, as a remedy for their rheumatics), all seated round the big fire and Mère Pinquele continued her story.
“Oh, yes, then when they get to the top of the hill, there is an altar with six candles quite black and a sort of something in between, that nobody sees quite clearly, and the old black ram with the man’s face and long horns begins to say Mass in a sort of gibberish nobody understands, and two black strange things like monkeys glide about with the book and the cruets—and there’s music too, such music. There are things the top half like black cats, and the bottom part like men only their legs are all covered with close black hair, and they play on the bag-pipes, and when they come to the elevation, then——” Amid the old crones there was lying on the hearth-rug, before the fire, a boy, whose large lovely eyes dilated and whose limbs quivered in the very ecstacy of terror.
”Is that all true, Mère Pinquèle?” he said.
”Oh, quite true, and not only that, the best part is yet to come; for they take a child and ——.” Here Mère Pinquèle showed her fang-like teeth.
”Oh! Mère Pinquèle, are you a witch too?”
”Silence, Gabriel,” said Mère Yvonne, “how can you say anything so wicked? Why, bless me, the boy ought to have been in bed ages ago.”
Just then all shuddered, and all made the sign of the cross except Mère Pinquèle, for they heard that most dreadful of dreadful sounds—the howl of a wolf, which begins with three sharp barks and then lifts itself up in a long protracted wail of commingled cruelty and despair, and at last subsides into a whispered growl fraught with eternal malice.
There was a forest and a village and a brook, the village was on one side of the brook, none had dared to cross to the other side. Where the village was, all was green and glad and fertile and fruitful; on the other side the trees never put forth green leaves, and a dark shadow hung over it even at noon-day, and in the night-time one could hear the wolves howling—the were-wolves and the wolf-men and the men-wolves, and those very wicked men who for nine days in every year are turned into wolves; but on the green side no wolf was ever seen, and only one little running brook like a silver streak flowed between.
It was spring now and the old crones sat no longer by the fire but before their cottages sunning themselves, and everyone felt so happy that they ceased to tell stories of the “other side.” But Gabriel wandered by the brook as he was wont to wander, drawn thither by some strange attraction mingled with intense horror.
His schoolfellows did not like Gabriel; all laughed and jeered at him, because he was less cruel and more gentle of nature than the rest, and even as a rare and beautiful bird escaped from a cage is hacked to death by the common sparrows, so was Gabriel among his fellows. Everyone wondered how Mère Yvonne, that buxom and worthy matron, could have produced a son like this, with strange dreamy eyes, who was as they said “pas comme les autres gamins.” His only friends were the Abbé Félicien whose Mass he served each morning, and one little girl called Carmeille, who loved him, no one could make out why.
The sun had already set, Gabriel still wandered by the brook, filled with vague terror and irresistible fascination. The sun set and the moon rose, the full moon, very large and very clear, and the moonlight flooded the forest both this side and “the other side,” and just on the “other side” of the brook, hanging over, Gabriel saw a large deep blue flower, whose strange intoxicating perfume reached him and fascinated him even where he stood.
”If I could only make one step across,” he thought, “nothing could harm me if I only plucked that one flower, and nobody would know I had been over at all,” for the villagers looked with hatred and suspicion on anyone who was said to have crossed to the “other side,” so summing up courage he leapt lightly to the other side of the brook. Then the moon breaking from a cloud shone with unusual brilliance, and he saw, stretching before him, long reaches of the same strange blue flowers each one lovelier than the last, till, not being able to make up his mind which one flower to take or whether to take several, he went on and on, and the moon shone very brightly, and a strange unseen bird, somewhat like a nightingale, but louder and lovelier, sang, and his heart was filled with longing for he knew not what, and the moon shone and the nightingale sang. But on a sudden a black cloud covered the moon entirely, and all was black, utter darkness, and through the darkness he heard wolves howling and shrieking in the hideous ardour of the chase, and there passed before him a horrible procession of wolves (black wolves with red fiery eyes), and with them men that had the heads of wolves and wolves that had the heads of men, and above them flew owls (black owls with red fiery eyes), and bats and long serpentine black things, and last of all seated on an enormous black ram with hideous human face the wolf-keeper on whose face was eternal shadow; but they continued their horrid chase and passed him by, and when they had passed the moon shone out more beautiful than ever, and the strange nightingale sang again, and the strange intense blue flowers were in long reaches in front to the right and to the left. But one thing was there which had not been before, among the deep blue flowers walked one with long gleaming golden hair, and she turned once round and her eyes were of the same colour as the strange blue flowers, and she walked on and Gabriel could not choose but follow. But when a cloud passed over the moon he saw no beautiful woman but a wolf, so in utter terror he turned and fled, plucking one of the strange blue flowers on the way, and leapt again over the brook and ran home.
When he got home Gabriel could not resist showing his treasure to his mother, though he knew she would not appreciate it; but when she saw the strange blue flower, Mère Yvonne turned pale and said, “Why child, where hast thou been? sure it is the witch flower”; and so saying she snatched it from him and cast it into the corner, and immediately all its beauty and strange fragrance faded from it and it looked charred as though it had been burnt. So Gabriel sat down silently and rather sulkily, and having eaten no supper went up to bed, but he did not sleep but waited and waited till all was quiet within the house. Then he crept downstairs in his long white night-shirt and bare feet on the square cold stones and picked hurriedly up the charred and faded flower and put it in his warm bosom next his heart, and immediately the flower bloomed again lovelier than ever, and he fell into a deep sleep, but through his sleep he seemed to hear a soft low voice singing underneath his window in a strange language (in which the subtle sounds melted into one another), but he could distinguish no word except his own name.
When he went forth in the morning to serve Mass, he still kept the flower with him next his heart. Now when the priest began Mass and said “Intriobo ad altare Dei,” then said Gabriel “Qui nequiquam laetificavit juventutem meam.” And the Abbé Félicien turned round on hearing this strange response, and he saw the boy’s face deadly pale, his eyes fixed and his limbs rigid, and as the priest looked on him Gabriel fell fainting to the floor, so the sacristan had to carry him home and seek another acolyte for the Abbé Félicien.
Now when the Abbé Félicien came to see after him, Gabriel felt strangely reluctant to say anything about the blue flower and for the first time he deceived the priest.
In the afternoon as sunset drew nigh he felt better and Carmeille came to see him and begged him to go out with her into the fresh air. So they went out hand in hand, the dark haired, gazelle-eyed boy, and the fair wavy haired girl, and something, he knew not what, led his steps (half knowingly and yet not so, for he could not but walk thither) to the brook, and they sat down together on the bank.
Gabriel thought at least he might tell his secret to Carmeille, so he took out the flower from his bosom and said, “Look here, Carmeille, hast thou seen ever so lovely a flower as this?” but Carmeille turned pale and faint and said, “Oh, Gabriel what is this flower? I but touched it and I felt something strange come over me. No, no, I don’t like its perfume, no, there’s something not quite right about it, oh, dear Gabriel, do let me throw it away,” and before he had time to answer, she cast it from her, and again all its beauty and fragrance went from it and it looked charred as though it had been burnt. But suddenly where the flower had been thrown on this side of the brook, there appeared a wolf, which stood and looked at the children.
Carmeille said, “What shall we do,” and clung to Gabriel, but the wolf looked at them very steadfastly and Gabriel recognized in the eyes of the wolf the strange deep intense blue eyes of the wolf-woman he had seen on the “other side,” so he said, “Stay here, dear Carmeille, see she is looking gently at us and will not hurt us.”
”But it is a wolf,” said Carmeille, and quivered all over with fear, but again Gabriel said languidly, “She will not hurt us.” Then Carmeille seized Gabriel’s hand in an agony of terror and dragged him along with her till they reached the village, where she gave the alarm and all the lads of the village gathered together. They had never seen a wolf on this side of the brook, so they excited themselves greatly and arranged a grand wolf hunt for the morrow, but Gabriel sat silently apart and said no word.
That night Gabriel could not sleep at all nor could he bring himself to say his prayers; but he sat in his little room by the window with his shirt open at the throat and the strange blue flower at his heart and again this night he heard a voice singing beneath his window in the same soft, subtle, liquid language as before—
- Ma zála liral va jé
- Cwamûlo zhajéla je
- Cárma urádi el javé
- Járma, symai, — carmé —
- Zhála javály thra je
- al vú al vlaûle va azré
- Safralje vairálje va já?
- Cárma serâja
- Lâja lâja
and as he looked he could see the silvern shadows slide on the limmering light of golden hair, and the strange eyes gleaming dark blue through the night and it seemed to him that he could not but follow; so he walked half clad and bare foot as he was with eyes fixed as in a dream silently down the stairs and out into the night.
And ever and again she turned to look on him with her strange blue eyes full of tenderness and passion and sadness beyond the sadness of things human—and as he foreknew his steps led him to the brink of the Brook. Then she, taking his hand, familiarly said, “Won’t you help me over Gabriel?”
Then it seemed to him as though he had known her all his life—so he went with her to the “other side” but he saw no one by him; and looking again beside him there were two wolves. In a frenzy of terror, he (who had never thought to kill any living thing before) seized a log of wood lying by and smote one of the wolves on the head.
Immediately he saw the wolf-woman again at his side with blood streaming from her forehead, staining her wonderful golden hair, and with eyes looking at him with infinite reproach, she said — “Who did this?” Then she whispered a few words to the other wolf, which leapt over the brook and made its way towards the village, and turning again towards him she said, “Oh Gabriel, how could you strike me, who would have loved you so long and so well.” Then it seemed to him again as though he had known her all his life but he felt dazed and said nothing—but she gathered a dark green strangely shaped leaf and holding it to her forehead, she said—“Gabriel, kiss the place all will be well again.” So he kissed as she had bidden him and he felt the salt taste of blood in his mouth and then he knew no more.
* * * *
Again he saw the wolf-keeper with his horrible troupe around him, but this time not engaged in the chase but sitting in strange conclave in a circle and the black owls sat in the trees and the black bats hung downwards from the branches. Gabriel stood alone in the middle with a hundred wicked eyes fixed on him. They seemed to deliberate about what should be done with him, speaking in that same strange tongue which he had heard in the songs beneath his window. Suddenly he felt a hand pressing in his and saw the mysterious wolf-woman by his side. Then began what seemed a kind of incantation where human or half human creatures seemed to howl, and beasts to speak with human speech but in the unknown tongue. Then the wolf-keeper whose face was ever veiled in shadow spake some words in a voice that seemed to come from afar off, but all he could distinguish was his own name Gabriel and her name Lilith. Then he felt arms enlacing him.—
Gabriel awoke—in his own room — so it was a dream after all—but what a dreadful dream. Yes, but was it his own room? Of course there was his coat hanging over the chair—yes but—the Crucifix—where was the Crucifix and the benetier and the consecrated palm branch and the antique image of Our Lady perpetuae salutis, with the little ever-burning lamp before it, before which he placed every day the flowers he had gathered, yet had not dared to place the blue flower.—
Every morning he lifted his still dream-laden eyes to it and said Ave Maria and made the sign of the cross, which bringeth peace to the soul—but how horrible, how maddening, it was not there, not at all. No surely he could not be awake, at least not quite awake, he would make the benedictive sign and he would be freed from this fearful illusion—yes but the sign, he would make the sign—oh, but what was the sign? Had he forgotten? or was his arm paralyzed? No he could move. Then he had forgotten—and the prayer—he must remember that. A — vae — nunc — mortis — fructus. No surely it did not run thus—but something like it surely—yes, he was awake he could move at any rate—he would reassure himself—he would get up—he would see the grey old church with the exquisitely pointed gables bathed in the light of dawn, and presently the deep solemn bell would toll and he would run down and don his red cassock and lace-worked cotta and light the tall candles on the altar and wait reverently to vest the good and gracious Abbé Félicien, kissing each vestment as he lifted it with reverent hands.
But surely this was not the light of dawn; it was like sunset! He leapt from his small white bed, and a vague terror came over him, he trembled and had to hold on to the chair before he reached the window. No, the solemn spires of the grey church were not to be seen—he was in the depths of the forest; but in a part he had never seen before—but surely he had explored every part, it must be the “other side.” To terror succeeded a languor and lassitude not without charm—passivity, acquiescence indulgence—he felt, as it were, the strong caress of another will flowing over him like water and clothing him with invisible hands in an impalpable garment; so he dressed himself almost mechanically and walked downstairs, the same stairs it seemed to him down which it was his wont to run and spring. The broad square stones seemed singularly beautiful and irridescent with many strange colours—how was it he had never noticed this before—but he was gradually losing the power of wondering—he entered the room below—the wonted coffee and bread-rolls were on the table. ”Why Gabriel, how late you are to-day” The voice was very sweet but the intonation strange—and there sat Lilith, the mysterious wolf-woman, her glittering gold hair tied loose in a loose knot and an embroidery whereon she was tracing strange serpentine patterns, lay over the lap of her maize coloured garment—and she looked at Gabriel steadfastly with her wonderful dark blue eyes and said, “Why, Gabriel, you are late to-day” and Gabriel answered, “I was tired yesterday, give me some coffee.”
* * * *
A dream within a dream—yes, he had known her all his life, and they dwelt together; had they not always done so? And she would take him through the glades of the forest and gather for him flowers, such as he had never seen before, and tell him stories in her strange, low deep voice, which seemed ever to be accompanied by the faint vibration of strings, looking at him fixedly the while with her marvellous blue eyes.
* * * *
Little by little the flame of vitality which burned within him seemed to grow fainter and fainter, and his lithe lissom limbs waxed languorous and luxurious—yet was he ever filled with a languid content and a will not his own perpetually overshadowed him.
One day in their wanderings he saw a strange dark blue flower like unto the eyes of Lilith, and a sudden half remembrance flashed through his mind.
”What is this blue flower?” he said, and Lilith shuddered and said nothing; but as they went a little further there was a brook—the brook he thought, and felt his fetters falling off him, and he prepared to spring over the brook; but Lilith seized him by the arm and held him back with all her strength, and trembling all over she said, “Promise me Gabriel that you will not cross over.” But he said, “Tell me what is this blue flower, and why you will not tell me?” And she said, “Look Gabriel at the brook.” And he looked and saw that though it was just like the brook of separation it was not the same, the waters did not flow.
As Gabriel looked steadfastly into the still waters it seemed to him as though he saw voices—some impression of the Vespers for the Dead. “Hei mihi quia incolatus sum,” and again “De profundis clamavi ad te”—oh, that veil, that overshadowing veil! Why could he not hear properly and see, and why did he only remember as one looking through a threefold semi-transparent curtain. Yes they were praying for him—but who were they? He heard again the voice of Lilith in whispered anguish, “Come away!”
Then he said, this time in monotone, “What is this blue flower, and what is its use?”
And the low thrilling voice answered, “It is called ‘lûli uzhûri,’ two drops pressed upon the face of the sleeper and he will sleep.”
He was as a child in her hand and suffered himself to be led from thence, nevertheless he plucked listlessly one of the blue flowers, holding it downwards in his hand. What did she mean? Would the sleeper wake? Would the blue flower leave any stain? Could that stain be wiped off?
But as he lay asleep at early dawn he heard voices from afar off praying for him—the Abbé Félicien, Carmeille, his mother too, then some familiar words struck his ear: “Libera mea porta inferi.” Mass was being said for the repose of his soul, he knew this. No, he could not stay, he would leap over the brook, he knew the way—he had forgotten that the brook did not flow. Ah, but Lilith would know—what should he do? The blue flower—there it lay close by his bedside—he understood now; so he crept very silently to where Lilith lay asleep, her long hair glittering gold, shining like a glory round about her. He pressed two drops on her forehead, she sighed once, and a shade of præternatural anguish passed over her beautiful face. He fled—terror, remorse, and hope tearing his soul and making fleet his feet. He came to the brook—he did not see that the water did not flow—of course it was the brook of separation; one bound, he should be with things human again. He leapt over and— A change had come over him—what was it? He could not tell—did he walk on all fours? Yes surely. He looked into the brook, whose still waters were fixed as a mirror, and there, horror, he beheld himself; or was it himself? His head and face, yes; but his body transformed to that of a wolf. Even as he looked he heard a sound of hideous mocking laughter behind him. He turned round—there, in a gleam of red lurid light, he saw one whose body was human, but whose head was that of a wolf, with eyes of infinite malice; and, while this hideous being laughed with a loud human laugh, he, essaying to speak, could only utter the prolonged howl of a wolf.
* * * *
But we will transfer our thoughts from the alien things on the “other side” to the simple human village where Gabriel used to dwell. Mère Yvonne was not much surprised when Gabriel did not turn up to breakfast—he often did not, so absent-minded was he; this time she said, “I suppose he has gone with the others to the wolf hunt.” Not that Gabriel was given to hunting, but, as she sagely said, “there was no knowing what he might do next.” The boys said, “Of course that muff Gabriel is skulking and hiding himself, he’s afraid to join the wolf hunt; why, he wouldn’t even kill a cat,” for their one notion of excellence was slaughter—so the greater the game the greater the glory. They were chiefly now confined to cats and sparrows, but they all hoped in after time to become generals of armies.
Yet these children had been taught all their life through with the gentle words of Christ—but alas, nearly all the seed falls by the wayside, where it could not bear flower or fruit; how little these know the suffering and bitter anguish or realize the full meaning of the words to those, of whom it is written “Some fell among thorns.”
The wolf hunt was so far a success that they did actually see a wolf, but not a success, as they did not kill it before it leapt over the brook to the “other side,” where, of course, they were afraid to pursue it. No emotion is more inrooted and intense in the minds of common people than hatred and fear of anything “strange.”
Days passed by but Gabriel was nowhere seen—and Mère Yvonne began to see clearly at last how deeply she loved her only son, who was so unlike her that she had thought herself an object of pity to other mothers—the goose and the swan’s egg. People searched and pretended to search, they even went to the length of dragging the ponds, which the boys thought very amusing, as it enabled them to kill a great number of water rats, and Carmeille sat in a corner and cried all day long. Mère Pinquèle also sat in a corner and chuckled and said that she had always said Gabriel would come to no good. The Abbé Félicien looked pale and anxious, but said very little, save to God and those that dwelt with God.
At last, as Gabriel was not there, they supposed he must be nowhere—that is dead. (Their knowledge of other localities being so limited, that it did not even occur to them to suppose he might be living elsewhere than in the village.) So it was agreed that an empty catafalque should be put up in the church with tall candles round it, and Mère Yvonne said all the prayers that were in her prayer book, beginning at the beginning and ending at the end, regardless of their appropriateness—not even omitting the instructions of the rubrics. And Carmeille sat in the corner of the little side chapel and cried, and cried. And the Abbé Félicien caused the boys to sing the Vespers for the Dead (this did not amuse them so much as dragging the pond), and on the following morning, in the silence of early dawn, said the Dirge and the Requiem—and this Gabriel heard. Then the Abbé Félicien received a message to bring the Holy Viaticum to one sick. So they set forth in solemn procession with great torches, and their way lay along the brook of separation.
* * * *
Essaying to speak he could only utter the prolonged howl of a wolf—the most fearful of all bestial sounds. He howled and howled again—perhaps Lilith would hear him! Perhaps she could rescue him? Then he remembered the blue flower—the beginning and end of all his woe. His cries aroused all the denizens of the forest—the wolves, the wolf-men, and the men-wolves. He fled before them in an agony of terror—behind him, seated on the black ram with human face, was the wolf-keeper, whose face was veiled in eternal shadow. Only once he turned to look behind—for among the shrieks and howls of beastial chase he heard one thrilling voice moan with pain. And there among them he beheld Lilith, her body too was that of a wolf, almost hidden in the masses of her glittering golden hair, on her forehead was a stain of blue, like in colour to her mysterious eyes, now veiled with tears she could not shed.
* * * *
The way of the Most Holy Viaticum lay along the brook of separation. They heard the fearful howlings afar off, the torch bearers turned pale and trembled—but the Abbé Félicien, holding aloft the Ciborium, said “They cannot harm us.”
Suddenly the whole horrid chase came in sight. Gabriel sprang over the brook, the Abbé Félicien held the most Blessed Sacrament before him, and his shape was restored to him and he fell down prostrate in adoration. But the Abbé Félicien still held aloft the Sacres Ciborium, and the people fell on their knees in the agony of fear, but the face of the priest seemed to shine with divine effulgence. Then the wolf-keeper held up in his hands the shape of something horrible and inconceivable—a monstrance to the Sacrament of Hell, and three times he raised it, in mockery of the blessed rite of Benediction. And on the third time streams of fire went forth from his fingers, and all the “other side” of the forest took fire, and great darkness was over all.
All who were there and saw and heard it have kept the impress thereof for the rest of their lives—nor till in their death hour was the remembrance thereof absent from their minds. Shrieks, horrible beyond conception, were heard till nightfall—then the rain rained.
The “other side” is harmless now—charred ashes only; but none dares to cross but Gabriel alone—for once a year for nine days a strange madness comes over him.
- ↑ DNB.
- ↑ Ibid.
- ↑ "Lilith," Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2008, Web, 12 Dec. 2008.
- ↑ DNB.
- ↑ To the joyous black Mass. "Joyouse" seems like it should be "joyeux."
- ↑ Not like the other kids.
- ↑ This is the first part of the phrase used in Mass: Introibo ad altare Dei: ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam (I will go unto the altar of God, to God Who giveth joy to my youth).
- ↑ Who fruitlessly gave joy to my youth. Notice the proper response would have been “to God Who giveth joy to my youth.”
- ↑ Imaginary werewolf language.
- ↑ The original reads “has.”
- ↑ "A vessel to contain holy water" (OED). Typically spelled “bénitier.”
- ↑ Of eternal salvation.
- ↑ Crossing one’s self.
- ↑ Woe now to the death of enjoyment.
- ↑ The original reads “But surely this was not the light of dawn it was liker sunset!”
- ↑ Catholic prayers offered for the deceased.
- ↑ Woe unto me because I am unpurified.
- ↑ About to pour forth secretly to you.
- ↑ Werewolf language.
- ↑ Free me from the gate of the dead.
- ↑ The original reads “glittening.”
- ↑ Mark 4:4 (KJV).
- ↑ Mark 4:7 (KJV).
- ↑ "A stage or platform, erected by way of honour … to receive the coffin or effigy of a deceased personage" (OED).
- ↑ Songs of mourning for the dead in the Catholic tradition.
- ↑ "The Eucharist (communion), as administered to or received by one who is dying or in danger of death" (OED).
- ↑ The receptacle for holding the Eucharist (OED).
- ↑ Sacred.
Edited by: Walker, Jeremy: section 1, Fall 2008